Flour Prices In Ghana

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What Is Flour?

Flour Is a powder made by grinding raw grains, roots, beans, nuts, or seeds. Flours are used to make many different foods. Cereal flour, particularly wheat flour, is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for many cultures.

What Is Flour Made From?

Flour is a natural product made by milling grains, usually wheat, to release the flour that sits inside.

What Is The Purpose Of Flour?

Flour provides the structure in baked goods. Wheat flour contains proteins that interact with each other when mixed with water, forming gluten. It is this elastic gluten framework which stretches to contain the expanding leavening gases during rising. The protein content of a flour affects the strength of a dough.

Why Is It Called Flour?

The English word flour is originally a variant of the word flower, and both words derive from the Old French fleur or flour, which had the literal meaning “blossom”, and a figurative meaning “the finest”.

How Long Can Flour Last?

For example, all-purpose flour lasts 6–8 months on the shelf but up to 1 year if refrigerated and 2 years if frozen. If you put your flour in the fridge, be sure to keep it away from moisture and water to prevent mold. This is best done by sealing it in an airtight container, such as a plastic bag or food bin .

How flour is made:

Flour is natural

This page aims to tell you how flour is made. Flour is a natural product made by milling grains, usually wheat, to release the flour that sits inside.

The wheat grain

Like most natural plants and fruits, grains, including wheat grains, consist of three main components. Think of an avocado. Firstly there’s the protective outer layer – the skin –  which in wheat is called bran. Then there’s the seed from which the new plant grows. In the avocado this is the big stone, and in the wheat seed it is called wheat germ.  Finally, there’s the main food source – in the avocado it’s the green flesh and in the wheat seed it’s the starchy endosperm. The endosperm is essentially just white flour sitting inside a wheat seed waiting to be removed.

History of flour milling

Grains have been ground to make flour since the Roman times – from 6000BC onwards. Grains were toasted to remove the chaff from the wheat and then smashed between two stones. The resultant flour was coarse and grainy. Evidence of sifting has been found so we know that even then, people were making fine, soft flour.

Modern flour milling

It is this the millers’ job to separate the wheat seed into its component parts: bran, wheat germ and pure white flour. In the UK and EU it is illegal to bleach flour, so the whiteness you see is totally natural. Flour is bleached in other parts of the world, so you might see recipes that call for “unbleached” flour.

Modern millers do not just grind grain the way the Romans did. This doesn’t allow for much of the white flour to be separated from the bran and germ. Instead a system of machines are used to open the individual grains, and then scrape and separate and grind each component. This continues until all the components are finely ground and completely separated. The wheat could go through the machines up to 16 times.

Composition of flour

White flour is made using just the endosperm, which is about 75% of the grain. Wholemeal or wholegrain flour, as the name suggests, uses all of the grain. And brown flour uses around 85% of the grain. See here for more information on some of the different types of flour available.

How flour is made: Step by Step

Not all flour is equal. Just as there are different varieties of apples or potatoes, each variety has unique properties and characteristics. These make it more or less suitable for certain products. So some flours are best for making light, airy breads; others for making cakes or biscuits; and others still for making pizza.

So farmers grow different varieties of wheat that will produce flour with different properties so that the baker can purchase the most suitable flour for the products their customers want to buy.

Delivery and storage of grain

When wheat arrives at the mill, it is tested to make sure that it has the required specification to make the right flour for the baker – or other customers’ – needs. It is tested against a contract specification for variety, moisture content, specific weight, impurities, enzyme activity associated with sprouting, protein content and quality. It passes through a preliminary cleaning process to remove coarse impurities, such as nails and stones, and may be dried before being stored in silos according to quality.

Assessing the wheat quality

The ‘Hagberg Falling Number’ measures the time, in seconds, a plunger takes to descend through a heated mixture of ground grain and water. The test indicates the alpha-amylase activity in the grain. This natural enzyme converts starch to smaller sugar units that would be used by the seed to fuel its growth.

If there is little enzyme activity, the mixture will remain viscous. The plunger will take a long time to descend and a high Hagberg Falling Number will be recorded. Too much enzyme activity and the reverse will be true. High enzyme activity impairs bread quality, producing a very weak and sticky crumb mixture.

Cleaning and conditioning

When wheat is drawn from the silos prior to milling, it is thoroughly cleaned. Powerful magnets extract any remaining ferrous metal objects.

Machines, which separate by shape, remove barley, oats and small seeds. Gravity separation removes stones and, throughout the cleaning process, air currents lift off dust and chaff.

The wheat is then conditioned to a suitable moisture content by tempering it with water and leaving it in conditioning bins for up to 24 hours. This conditioning softens the bran and enhances the release of the inner white endosperm during milling.


Cleaned and conditioned wheat is then blended in a process known as gristing. This combines different wheats to produce a mix capable of making the required quality of flour to suit the needs of the flour millers’ customers.


The grist is passed through a series of ‘break’ rolls rotating at different speeds. These rolls do not crush the wheat but split it open, separating the white, inner portion from the outer skins.

The various fragments of wheat grain are separated by a complex arrangement of sieves. White endosperm particles, known as semolina, are channelled into a series of smooth ‘reduction’ rolls for final milling into white flour.


Bran and wheat germ are streamed into this flour to make brown or wholemeal flour. Wholemeal flour contains all the parts of the grain (endosperm, germ and bran); brown flour will contain less bran and may or may not include wheat germ.

Flour Prices In Ghana:

The price of flour is GHS GH₵ 17.00 per kg and Bag of flour is selling between GHS 570.00 to GHS 1,070.00..!!!